Essentials of Geology (13th Edition)
The thirteenth edition of Essentials of Geology, like its predecessors, is a college-level text that is intended to be a meaningful, nontechnical survey for students taking their first course in geology. In addition to being informative and up-to-date, a major goal of this book is to meet the need of students for a readable and user-friendly text that is a valuable tool for learning the basic principles and concepts of geology. Although many topical issues are treated in the 13th edition of Essentials, it should be emphasized that the main focus of this new edition remains the same as the focus of each of its predecessors: to promote student understanding of basic principles. As much as possible, we have attempted to provide the reader with a sense of the observational techniques and reasoning processes that constitute the science of geology.
New & Important Features
This 13th edition is an extensive and thorough revision of Essentials of Geology that integrates improved textbook resources with new online features to enhance the learning experience:
• Significant updating and revision of content. A basic function of a college science textbook is to provide clear, understandable presentations that are accurate, engaging, and up-to-date. In the long history of this textbook, our number-one goal has always been to keep Essentials of Geology current, relevant, and highly readable for beginning students. With this goal as a priority, every part of this text has been examined carefully. The following are a few examples. In Chapter 9, the text and figures for Section 9.3, “Locating the Source of an Earthquake,” are substantially revised, and a discussion of the USGS Community Internet Intensity Map project is added.
In Chapter 11, the treatment of stress, strain, and rock deformation are substantially revised, as is the final section on isostatic balance. In Chapter 12, the mechanism responsible for long-runout landslides is updated, with reference to the occurrence of such landslides on Mars, and the 2015 Nepal earthquake is used as a landslide-triggering event. In Chapter 13, a section on the loss of wetlands in coastal Louisiana is added, and the treatment of flood control is updated and tightened. Many discussions, case studies, examples, and illustrations have been updated and revised.
• SmartFigures make this 13th edition much more than a traditional textbook. Through its many editions, an important strength of Essentials has always been clear, logically organized, and well-illustrated explanations. Now complementing and reinforcing this strength are a series of SmartFigures. Simply by scanning the Quick Response (QR) code next to a SmartFigure with a mobile device, students can link to hundreds of unique and innovative digital learning opportunities that will increase their understanding of important ideas. Each SmartFigure also displays a short URL for students who may lack a smartphone. SmartFigures are truly media that teach! The more than 200 Smart- Figures in the 13th edition of Essentials of Geology are of five types:
1. SmartFigure Tutorials. Each of these 2- to 4-minute tutorials, prepared and narrated by Professor Callan Bentley, is a mini-lesson
that examines and explains the concepts illustrated by the figure.
2. SmartFigure Mobile Field Trips. Scattered throughout this new edition are 24 video field trips that explore classic geologic sites from Iceland to Hawaii. On each trip you will accompany geologist/pilot/ photographer Michael Collier in the air and on the ground to see and learn about landscapes that relate to discussions in the chapter.
3. SmartFigures Condor. The 10 Project Condor videos take you to sites in the American Mountain West. By coupling videos acquired by a quadcopter aircraft with ground-level views, effective narrative, and helpful animations, these videos will engage you in real-life case studies.
4. SmartFigure Animations. These animations bring the art to life, illustrating and explaining difficult-to-visualize topics more effectively than static art alone.
5. SmartFigure Videos. Rather than providing a single image to illustrate an idea, these figures include short video clips that help illustrate such diverse subjects as mineral properties and the structure of ice sheets.
• Objective-driven active learning path. Each chapter in this 13th edition begins with Focus on Concepts: a set of learning objectives that correspond to the chapter’s major sections. By identifying key knowledge and skills, these objectives help students prioritize the material. Each major section concludes with Concept Checks so that students can check their learning. Two end-of-chapter features complete the learning path. Concepts in Review is coordinated with the Focus on Concepts at the beginning of the chapter and with the numbered sections within the chapter. It is a readable and concise overview of key ideas, with photos, diagrams, and questions. Finally, the questions and problems in Give It Some Thought challenge learners by requiring higherorder thinking skills to analyze, synthesize, and apply the material.
• An unparalleled visual program. In addition to more than 100 new high-quality photos and satellite images, dozens of figures are new or have been redrawn by the gifted and highly respected geoscience illustrator Dennis Tasa. Maps and diagrams are frequently paired with photographs for greater effectiveness. Further, many new and revised figures have additional labels that narrate the process being illustrated and guide students as they examine the figures, resulting in a visual program that is clear and easy to understand.
1 An Introduction to Geology 2
2 Plate Tectonics: A Scientific Revolution Unfolds 32
3 Matter & Minerals 66
4 Igneous Rocks & Intrusive Activity 94
5 Volcanoes & Volcanic Hazards 126
6 Weathering & Soils 160
7 Sedimentary Rocks 184
8 Metamorphism & Metamorphic Rocks 216
9 Earthquakes & Earth’s Interior 238
10 Origin & Evolution of the Ocean Floor 268
11 Crustal Deformation & Mountain Building 292
12 Mass Movement on Slopes: The Work of Gravity 320
13 Running Water 340
14 Groundwater 368
15 Glaciers & Glaciation 394
16 Deserts & Wind 422
17 Shorelines 440
18 Geologic Time 468
19 Earth’s Evolution Through Geologic Time 492
20 Global Climate Change 526
Metric and English Units Compared 556
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