Introduction to Robotics: Analysis, Control, Applications 2nd Edition

Introduction to Robotics: Analysis, Control, Applications 2nd Edition

Book Preface

This is the second edition of the Introduction to Robotics textbook. As such, it has all the features and the material covered in the first edition, but also features more examples, more homework, new projects, more detailed material in all chapters, and as a new feature, it also includes a new chapter on automatic controls and control of robots as well as information about downloading a commercially available software system called SimulationXTM.

What one of my students once said years ago still stands: ‘‘In the life of every product, there comes a time when you have to shoot the designer and go into production.’’ Therefore, although no textbook is ever perfect, each has unique features that make it stand tall. So is this textbook. The intention behind writing this book was, and is, to cover most subjects that an undergraduate engineering student or a practicing engineer may need to know to be familiar with robotics, to be able to understand robots, design a robot, and integrate a robot in appropriate applications. As such, it covers all necessary fundamentals of robotics, robot components and subsystems, and applications.

The book is intended for senior or introductory graduate courses in robotics as well as for practicing engineers who would like to learn about robotics. Although the book covers a fair amount of mechanics and kinematics, it also covers microprocessor applications, control systems, vision systems, sensors, and actuators. Therefore, it can easily be used by mechanical engineers, electronic and electrical engineers, computer engineers, and engineering technologists. With the new chapter about control theory, even if the student has not had a controls course, he or she can learn enough material to be able to understand robotic control and design.

The book is comprised of 10 chapters. Chapter 1 covers introductory subjects that familiarize the reader with the necessary background information. This includes some historical information, robot components, robot characteristics, robot languages, and robotic applications. Chapter 2 explores the forward and inverse kinematics of robots, including frame representations, transformations, position and orientation analysis, as well as the Denavit-Hartenberg representation of robot kinematics. Chapter 3 continues with differential motions and velocity analysis of robots and frames. Chapter 4 presents an analysis of robot dynamics and forces. Lagrangian mechanics is used as the primary method of analysis and development for this chapter. Chapter 5 discusses methods of path and trajectory planning, both in joint-space and in Cartesian-space. Chapter 6 covers fundamentals of control engineering, including analysis and design tools. Among other things, it discusses root locus, proportional, derivative, and integral control as well as electromechanical system modeling. Chapter 6 also includes an introduction to multiinput- multi-output (MIMO) systems, digital systems, and nonlinear systems. However, the assumption is that students will need additional instruction to be proficient in actually designing systems. One chapter on this subject cannot be adequate, but can nicely serve as an introduction for majors in which a separate course in control engineering is not offered. Chapter 7 covers actuators, including hydraulic devices, electric motors such as DC servomotors and stepper motors, pneumatic devices, as well as many other novel actuators. It also covers microprocessor control of these actuators. Although this book is not a complete mechatronics book, it does cover a fair amount of mechatronics. Except for the design of a microprocessor, many aspects of mechatronic applications are covered in this chapter. Chapter 8 is a discussion of sensors used in robotics and robotic applications. Chapter 9 covers vision systems, including many different techniques for image processing and image analysis. Chapter 10 discusses the basic principles of fuzzy logic and its applications in microprocessor control and robotics. This coverage is not intended to be a complete and thorough analysis of fuzzy logic, but an introduction. It is believed that students and engineers who find it interesting will continue on their own. Appendix A is a quick review of matrix algebra and some other mathematical facts that are needed throughout this book. Appendix B covers image acquisition. Appendix C presents the application of MATLAB in control engineering. Appendix D includes references to commercial software that can be used to model and simulate robots and their dynamics. The student version of this program can be downloaded for free. Consequently, if robotic simulation is to be covered, the program and associated tutorials may be used without additional cost to students.

Most of the material in this book is generally covered in a four-unit, 10-week course at Cal Poly, with three one-hour lectures and one three-hour lab. However, it is easily possible to cover the entire course in a semester-long course as well. The following breakdown can be used as a model for setting up a course in robotics in a quarter system. In this case, certain subjects must be eliminated or shortened, as shown:

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