Membrane Technology and Applications 3rd Edition

Membrane Technology and Applications 3rd Edition
  • Author: Richard W. Baker
    Publisher: Wiley
    Genres: Chemistry
    Publish Date: October 1, 2012
    ISBN-10: 0470743727
    Pages: 590
    File Type: PDF
    Language: English


Book Preface

My introduction to membranes was as a graduate student in 1963. At that time membrane permeation was a sub-study of materials science. What is now called membrane technology did not exist, nor did any large industrial applications of membranes. Since then, sales of membranes and membrane equipment have increased more than 100-fold and several tens of millions of square meters of membrane are produced each year – a membrane industry has been created.

This membrane industry is very fragmented. Industrial applications are divided into six main sub-groups: reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, gas separation, pervaporation, and electrodialysis. Medical applications are divided into three more: artificial kidneys, blood oxygenators, and controlled release pharmaceuticals. Few companies are involved in more than one sub-group of the industry. Because of these divisions it is difficult to obtain an overview of membrane science and technology; this book is an attempt to give such an overview.

The book starts with a series of general chapters on membrane preparation, transport theory, and concentration polarization. Thereafter, each major membrane application is treated in a single 20- to 50-page chapter. In a book of this size it is impossible to describe every membrane process in detail, but the major processes are covered. However, medical applications were short-changed somewhat and some applications – battery separators and membrane sensors, for example – are not covered at all.

Each application chapter starts with a short historical background to acknowledge the developers of the technology. I am conscious that my views of what was important in the past differ from those of many of my academic colleagues. In this book I have given more credit than is usual to the engineers who actually made the processes work. Membrane technology continues to expand and change. For this reason, some change has been made to every chapter in this edition of the book to reflect these new developments. The use of bioreactors fitted with submerged-air scrubbed membranes – barely touched on in the second edition – is now a significant industry and so the ultrafiltration chapter has been completely rewritten. I also took this opportunity to rework the chapter on pervaporation and the section on membrane contactors, and included new sections on the use of membranes in fuel cells and the chlor-alkali industry. These updates and additions have added new figures and references, so the page count has increased more than 10% over the second edition.

Readers of the Theory section (Chapter 2) and elsewhere in the book will see that membrane permeation is described using simple phenomenological equations, most commonly, Fick’s law. There is no mention of irreversible thermodynamics. The irreversible thermodynamic approach to permeation was very fashionable when I began to work My introduction to membranes was as a graduate student in 1963. At that time membrane permeation was a sub-study of materials science. What is now called membrane technology did not exist, nor did any large industrial applications of membranes. Since then, sales of membranes and membrane equipment have increased more than 100-fold and several tens of millions of square meters of membrane are produced each year – a membrane industry has been created.

This membrane industry is very fragmented. Industrial applications are divided into six main sub-groups: reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, gas separation, pervaporation, and electrodialysis. Medical applications are divided into three more: artificial kidneys, blood oxygenators, and controlled release pharmaceuticals. Few companies are involved in more than one sub-group of the industry. Because of these divisions it is difficult to obtain an overview of membrane science and technology; this book is an attempt to give such an overview.

The book starts with a series of general chapters on membrane preparation, transport theory, and concentration polarization. Thereafter, each major membrane application is treated in a single 20- to 50-page chapter. In a book of this size it is impossible to describe every membrane process in detail, but the major processes are covered. However, medical applications were short-changed somewhat and some applications – battery separators and membrane sensors, for example – are not covered at all.

Each application chapter starts with a short historical background to acknowledge the developers of the technology. I am conscious that my views of what was important in the past differ from those of many of my academic colleagues. In this book I have given more credit than is usual to the engineers who actually made the processes work. Membrane technology continues to expand and change. For this reason, some change has been made to every chapter in this edition of the book to reflect these new developments. The use of bioreactors fitted with submerged-air scrubbed membranes – barely touched on in the second edition – is now a significant industry and so the ultrafiltration chapter has been completely rewritten. I also took this opportunity to rework the chapter on pervaporation and the section on membrane contactors, and included new sections on the use of membranes in fuel cells and the chlor-alkali industry. These updates and additions have added new figures and references, so the page count has increased more than 10% over the second edition.

Readers of the Theory section (Chapter 2) and elsewhere in the book will see that membrane permeation is described using simple phenomenological equations, most commonly, Fick’s law. There is no mention of irreversible thermodynamics. The irreversible thermodynamic approach to permeation was very fashionable when I began to work

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