Power System Engineering
• Energy probably was the original stuff or creation. It appears in many forms, but has one thing in common-energy is possessed of the ability to produce a dynamic, Vital effect. It shows itself by excited animated state assumed by material which receives energy.
• Energy exists in various forms, e.g., ?chanical, thermal, electrical etc. One form of energy can be converted into other by the use of suitable arrangements.
• Electric enera is an essential gradient for the industrial and all-around development of any country. It is preferred one to the following advantages :
(1 Can be generated centrally in bulk.
(ii) Can be easily and economically transported from one place to another over long dis- tances.
(1) Losses in transport are minimum.
(iv) Can be easily sub-divided.
(v) Can be adapted easily and efficiently to domestic and mechanical work.
• Electric energy is obtained, conventionally, by conversion from fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas), the nuclear and hydro sources. Heat energy released by burning fossil fuels or by fusion of nuclear material is converted to electricity by first converting heat energy to the mechanical form through a thennocycle and then converting mechanical energy through generators to the electrical form. Thermo-cycle is basically a low efficiency process-highest efficiencies for modem large size plants range upto 40%, while smaller plants may have considerably lower efficiencies. The earth has fixed ncn-replenishable resources of fossil fuels and nuclear materials. Hydro-energy, though replenishable, is also limited in terms of power.
• In view of the ever increasing per capita energy consumption and exponentially rising population, the earth’s non-replenishable fuel resources are not likely to last for a long time. Thus a coordinated world-wide action plan is, therefore, necessary to ensure that energy supply to humanity at large is assured for a long time and at low economic cost. The following factors needs to considered and actions to be taken accordingly : (i) Energy consumption curtailment ; (ii) To initiate concerted efforts to deuelop alternative sources of energy including unconflentional sources like solar, tidal, geothermal energy etc. ; (iii) Recycling of nuclear wastes ; (iv) De!lelop?nt and application of antipollution technologies.
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