Transport Phenomena, Revised 2nd Edition
While momentum, heat, and mass transfer developed independently as branches of classical physics long ago, their unified study has found its place as one of the fundamental engineering sciences. This development, in turn, less than half a century old, continues to grow and to find applications in new fields such as biotechnology, microelectronics, nanotechnology, and polymer science.
Evolution of transport phenomena has been so rapid and extensive that complete coverage is not possible. While we have included many representative examples, our main emphasis has, of necessity, been on the fundamental aspects of this field. Moreover, we have found in discussions with colleagues that transport phenomena is taught in a variety of ways and at several different levels. Enough material has been included for two courses, one introductory and one advanced. The elementary course, in turn, can be divided into one course on momentum transfer, and another on heat and mass transfer, thus providing more opportunity to demonstrate the utility of this material in practical applications. Designation of some sections as optional (0) and other as advanced (a) may be helpful to students and instructors.
Long regarded as a rather mathematical subject, transport phenomena is most important for its physical significance. The essence of this subject is the careful and compact statement of the conservation principles, along with the flux expressions, with emphasis on the similarities and differences among the three transport processes considered. Often, specialization to the boundary conditions and the physical properties in a specific problem can provide useful insight with minimal effort. Nevertheless, the language of transport phenomena is mathematics, and in this textbook we have assumed familiarity with ordinary differential equations and elementary vector analysis. We introduce the use of partial differential equations with sufficient explanation that the interested student can master the material presented. Numerical techniques are deferred, in spite of their obvious importance, in order to concentrate on fundamental understanding.
Citations to the published literature are emphasized throughout, both to place transport phenomena in its proper historical context and to lead the reader into further extensions of fundamentals and to applications. We have been particularly anxious to introduce the pioneers to whom we owe so much, and from whom we can still draw useful inspiration. These were human beings not so different from ourselves, and perhaps some of our readers will be inspired to make similar contributions.
Obviously both the needs of our readers and the tools available to them have changed greatly since the first edition was written over forty years ago. We have made a serious effort to bring our text up to date, within the limits of space and our abilities, and we have tried to anticipate further developments. Major changes from the first edition include:
transport properties of two-phase systems
use of “combined fluxes” to set up shell balances and equations of change
angular momentum conservation and its consequences
complete derivation of the mechanical energy balance
expanded treatment of boundary-layer theory
improved discussions of turbulent transport
Fourier analysis of turbulent transport at high Pr or Sc more on heat and mass transfer coefficients enlarged discussions of dimensional analysis and scaling matrix methods for multicomponent mass transfer ionic systems, membrane separations, and porous media the relation between the Boltzmann equation and the continuum equations use of the “Q+W convention in energy discussions, in conformity with the leading textbooks in physics and physical chemistry
However, it is always the youngest generation of professionals who see the future most clearly, and who must build on their imperfect inheritance. Much remains to be done, but the utility of transport phenomena can be expected to increase rather than diminish. Each of the exciting new technologies blossoming around us is governed, at the detailed level of interest, by the conservation laws and flux expressions, together with information on the transport coefficients. Adapting the problem formulations and solution techniques for these new areas will undoubtedly keep engineers busy for a long time, and we can only hope that we have provided a useful base from which to start.
Each new book depends for its success on many more individuals than those whose names appear on the title page. The most obvious debt is certainly to the hard-working and gifted students who have collectively taught us much more than we have taught them. In addition, the professors who reviewed the manuscript deserve special thanks for their numerous corrections and insightful comments: Yu-Ling Cheng (University of Toronto), Michael D. Graham (University of Wisconsin), Susan J. Muller (University of California-Berkeley), William B. Russel (Princeton University), Jay D. Schieber (Illinois Institute of Technology), and John F. Wendt (Von Kdrm6n Institute for Fluid Dynamics). However, at a deeper level, we have benefited from the departmental structure and traditions provided by our elders here in Madison. Foremost among these was Olaf Andreas Hougen, and it is to his memory that this edition is dedicated.
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