Hole’s Human Anatomy & Physiology: Laboratory Manual 8 Spi Edition
This laboratory manual was prepared to be used with any human anatomy and physiology textbook. The major dissection specimen is the fetal pig.
The laboratory manual contains sixty-two laboratory exercises and reports. The exercises are planned to illustrate and review anatomical and physiological facts and principles presented in a textbook and to help students investigate some of these ideas in greater detail.
Often the laboratory exercises are short or are divided into several separate procedures. This allows an instructor to select those exercises or parts of exercises that will best meet the needs of a particular program. Also, exercises requiring a minimal amount of laboratory equipment have been included.
The laboratory exercises include a variety of special features that are designed to stimulate interest in the subject matter, to involve students in the learning process, and to guide them through the planned activities. These special features include the following:
This section lists the laboratory materials that are required to complete the exercise and to perform the demonstrations and optional activities.
A list of safety guidelines is included inside the front cover. Each lab session that requires special safety guidelines has a safety section following “Materials Needed.” Your instructor might require some modifications of these guidelines.
The introduction briefly describes the subject of the exercise or the ideas that will be investigated.
PURPOSE OF THE EXERCISE
The purpose provides a statement concerning the intent of the exercise—that is, what will be accomplished.
The learning objectives list in general terms what a student should be able to do after completing the exercise.
The procedure provides a set of detailed instructions for accomplishing the planned laboratory activities. Usually these instructions are presented in outline form so that a student can proceed through the exercise in stepwise fashion. Frequently, the student is referred to particular sections of a textbook for necessary background information or for review of subject matter presented previously.
The procedures include a wide variety of laboratory activities and, from time to time, direct the student to complete various tasks in the laboratory reports.
A laboratory report to be completed by the student immediately follows each exercise. These reports include various types of review activities, spaces for sketches of microscopic objects, tables for recording observations and experimental results, and questions dealing with the analysis of such data. It is hoped that as a result of these activities, students will develop a better understanding of the structural and functional characteristics of their bodies and will increase their skills in gathering information by observation and experimentation. Some of the exercises also include demonstrations, optional activities, and useful illustrations.
Demonstrations appear in separate boxes. They describe specimens, specialized laboratory equipment, or other materials of interest that an instructor may want to display to enrich the student’s laboratory experience.
Optional activities also appear in separate boxes. They encourage students to extend their laboratory experiences. Some of these activities are open-ended in that they suggest that the student plan an investigation or experiment and carry it out after receiving approval from the laboratory instructor.
THE USE OF ANIMALS IN BIOLOGY EDUCATION*
The National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT) believes that the study of organisms, including nonhuman animals, is essential to the understanding of life on Earth. NABT recommends the prudent and responsible use of animals in the life science classroom. NABT believes that biology teachers should foster a respect for life. Biology teachers also should teach about the interrelationship and interdependency of all things.
Classroom experiences that involve nonhuman animals range from observation to dissection. NABT supports these experiences so long as they are conducted within the long established guidelines of proper care and use of animals, as developed by the scientific and educational community.
As with any instructional activity, the use of nonhuman animals in the biology classroom must have sound educational objectives. Any use of animals, whether for observation or dissection, must convey substantive knowledge of biology. NABT believes that biology teachers are in the best position to make this determination for their students. NABT acknowledges that no alternative can substitute for the actual experience of dissection or other use of animals and urges teachers to be aware of the limitations of alternatives. When the teacher determines that the most effective means to meet the objectives of the class do not require dissection, NABT accepts the use of alternatives to dissection including models and the various forms of multimedia. The Association encourages teachers to be sensitive to substantive student objections to dissection and to consider providing appropriate lessons for those students where necessary.
To implement this policy, NABT endorses and adopts the “Principles and Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Precollege Education” of the Institute of Laboratory Animals Resources (National Research Council). Copies of the “Principles and Guidelines” may be obtained from NABT or the ILAR (2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418; 202 334–2590).
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