Introductory Statistics, Third Edition
Statistical thinking will one day be as necessary for efficient citizenship as the ability to read and write.
H. G. Wells (1866–1946)
In today’s complicated world, very few issues are clear-cut and without controversy. In order to understand and form an opinion about an issue, one must usually gather information, or data. To learn from data, one must know something about statistics, which is the art of learning from data.
This introductory statistics text is written for college-level students in any field of study. It can be used in a quarter, semester, or full-year course. Its only prerequisite is high school algebra. Our goal in writing it is to present statistical concepts and techniques inamanner that will teach students not only how and when to utilize the statistical procedures developed, but also to understandwhy these procedures should be used. As a result we have made a great effort to explain the ideas behind the statistical concepts and techniques presented. Concepts are motivated, illustrated, and explained in a way that attempts to increase one’s intuition. It is only when a student develops a feel or intuition for statistics that she or he is really on the path toward making sense of data.
To illustrate the diverse applications of statistics and to offer students different perspectives about the use of statistics, we have provided a wide variety of text examples and problems to be worked by students. Most refer to real-world issues, such as gun control, stock price models, health issues, driving age limits, school admission ages, public policy issues, gender issues, use of helmets, sports, disputed authorship, scientific fraud, and Vitamin C, among many others.
Many of them use data that not only are real but are themselves of interest. The examples have been posed in a clear and concise manner and include many thought-provoking problems that emphasize thinking and problem-solving skills. In addition, some of the problems are designed to be open-ended and can be used as starting points for term projects.
SOME SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE TEXT
Introduction The first numbered section of each chapter is an introduction that poses a realistic statistical situation to help students gain perspective on what they will encounter in the chapter.
Statistics in Perspective Statistics in Perspective highlights are placed throughout the book to illustrate real-world application of statistical techniques and concepts
These perspectives are designed to help students analyze and interpret data while utilizing proper statistical techniques and methodology.
Real Data Throughout the text discussions, examples, perspective highlights, and problems, real data sets are used to enhance the students’ understanding of the material. These data sets provide information for the study of current issues in a variety of disciplines, such as health, medicine, sports, business, and education.
Historical Perspectives These enrichment sections profile prominent statisticians and historical events, giving students an understanding of how the discipline of statistics has evolved.
Problems/Review Problems This text includes hundreds of exercises placed at the end of each section within a chapter, as well as more comprehensive review problems at the end of each chapter. Many of these problems utilize real data and are designed to assess the students’ conceptual as well as computational understanding of the material. Selected problems are open-ended and offer excellent opportunity for extended discussion, group activities, or student projects.
Summary/Key Terms An end-of-chapter summary provides a detailed review of important concepts and formulas covered in the chapter. Key terms and their definitions are listed that serve as a working glossary within each chapter.
Formula Summary Important tables and formulas that students often refer to and utilize are included on the inside front and back covers of the book. These can serve as a quick reference when doing homework or studying for an exam.
Program CD-ROM A CD-ROM is provided with each volume that includes programs that can be used to solve basic statistical computation problems. Please refer to Appendix E for a listing of these programs.
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